J. Wang, M. K. Balazs, P. Pianetta, K. Baur and S. Brennan
Direct measurement of trace elements on wafer surfaces by TXRF is quick and nondestructive. SR-TXRF has similar features to TXRF, but much better detection limits mainly due to the high flux. VPD-TXRF and VPD-SR-TXRF improve the detection capability to various degrees. However, some elements (e.g. Cu) may have recovery problems at certain concentrations. Read more