Marjorie K. Balazs
Solid State Technology
October 1993
Ultrapure water is used in the manufacturing of semiconductor integrated circuits for both rinsing wafers after numerous cleaning and etching steps and for making up solutions used in these steps. To date, the primary concern has been to produce, deliver and measure the degree of purity of this water. However, as the purity of the water goes down, serious problems begin to arise because of the nature of water that does not contain any contaminants. Read more