Jiansheng (Jason) Wang and Marjorie K. Balazs
Semiconductor International
March 2000
Wafer surface cleanliness is a critical concern in the manufacture of ULSI IC products 1,2. Particles and trace metallic impurities such as sodium, iron, copper, calcium, zinc and nickel from airborne particulates, reactors, chemicals or ultrapure water (UPW) are well covered by the literature. However, not all airborne contamination originates from particles. There is increasing concern with the adsorption of volatile contaminants onto wafer surfaces. Read more