L.E. Vanattaa, J.C. Vanatta, J. Riviello
Jorunal of Chromatography A
Frogs are known to obtain some of their nutrients (e.g., glucose and sodium) through their skin. However, no studies have been made of the possible absorption of transition metals, which exist in most river water at low-ppb (w/w) levels. Therefore, this research was undertaken to evaluate the use of ion chromatography for such an investigation. Solutions of copper and zinc (20 ppb in each) were chosen for use in a small-scale screening study. Ten live frogs were each placed in individual baths for approximately 50 h. Of interest were the net changes in the concentrations of the metals. These differences were the result of any absorption and/or excretion processes that took place. A Dionex IonPac CS5 column was used to analyze this simulated river water, both before and after frogs had been placed in the solution. Included in this paper are: (1) methodology and calculation formulas; (2) precautions needed to ensure sample integrity; (3) statistical analyses, which indicated that ion chromatography is an accurate, precise technique for quantifying Cu and Zn in these samples; and (4) screening-study results, which were used to test the null hypothesis that frogs do not absorb copper and zinc either onto or through their skin. Read more